Complex mechanization of transport and loading and unloading operations consists in the fact that with the help of appropriate sets of machines, mutually linked in productivity, the continuous movement of construction goods and products from the points of procurement to the workplace is ensured and the time of loading and unloading of vehicles, labor intensity and cost of work is reduced as much as possible
Labor productivity at mechanized loading and unloading operations is 7-8 times higher than when they are performed manually, and the carrying capacity of cars increases significantly - 1.5 tons by 40%, and 3 tons by 10%.
Along with high-performance transport and loading and unloading machines with automatic engine control and cleaning of working surfaces from adhering particles of materials, the means of complex mechanization of transport operations include: pneumatic unloaders for cement and other pulverized materials, vibrobunker and vibrolotki.
Small-piece materials and long products are enlarged into packages to speed up loading and unloading. When installing blocks and precast concrete structures directly from vehicles, the performance of a set of transport and loading and unloading machines must match the performance of mounting cranes. At the same time, for the transportation of elements, a shuttle method is resorted to using a tractor-trailer and at least three trailers: one is in the warehouse of the plant under loading, the second is on the way, and the third is on the construction site. The hourly delivery schedule plus the installation of prefabricated elements is based on the number and weight of elements + the technological sequence of installation. With the shuttle method, the duration of loading elements at the factory should not exceed the duration of the trip of the road train (taking into account maneuvering, installation for installation of the loaded trailer, uncoupling and hitching of the empty one) and correspond to the time spent on the installation of these elements. The number of motor transport units is determined by a special formula, which is measured in minutes; the following indicators are involved: the crane's load capacity during the boom's working departure, the crane's load capacity utilization factor (the ratio of the weight of the lifted load to the crane's load capacity at a given boom departure); the crane's time utilization factor, taking into account technological interruptions in the crane's operation; the crane's time utilization factor per shift, taking into account organizational breaks in the operation of the crane (current maintenance, refueling, rest of the maintenance staff, etc.), accepted for cranes with an electric drive of 0.8 and with internal combustion engines of 0.75. The operating time of the machine includes the time required for moving the crane hook, securing the load, lifting and lowering it, turning the boom, moving the crane; the value depends on the operating parameters of the crane, the possibility of combining operations (crane movement, turning the boom and lifting the hook), as well as the duration of the break between individual operations.
The time for manual operations consists of the time required to secure the cargo and release the lifting devices, and depends on the type of cargo - long, containers, packages, etc., as well as on the design of grips and slings - conventional, semi-automatic or automatic. The latter allow you to reduce the time for manual operations. Loading and unloading are performed according to conditional signals indicating which operations should be performed. Ansbach escort girl | Germany Escort list